一、 **单词**30

二、 **填空**20

三、 **缩略词**13

四、 **翻译37 P72 P46**


  1. 1. **A (n) byte is made up of eight bits, which are the smallest units of information handled by a computer.**
  2. 2. **According to the text, ENIAC was the first digital computer ever built in history.
  3. 3. **It is believed that Grace Murray Hopper wrote the first program that turned English computer instructions into the strings of 1s and 0s that make computers work.**
  4. 4. **British mathematicians Charles Babbage and Augusta Ada Byron once worked on plans for machines that could store information on punched cards, which had holes in them.**
  5. 5. **With the rapid development of computer technology, the desktop or laptop computers we use today are much more powerful than the mainframes built decades ago, such as ENIAC and UNIVAC.**
  6. 6. **The invention of integrated circuits or computer chips in the 1960s made it possible for computers to become smaller.**
  7. 7. **A computer program is a detailed set of instructions used to tell a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task.**
  8. 8. **Invented in the 1970s, personal computers are designed to meet the computing needs of an individual.**


  1. 1. **Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allow users to point and click on small on-screen pictures, called icons, to issue commands.**
  2. 2. **A bit, short for binary digit, has two possible representations (0 or 1), and a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s.**
  3. 3. **The physical memory of a computer is either random-access memory (RAM) or read-only memory (ROM).**
  4. 4. **A bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. A 16-bit bus has 16 parallel wires and allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits of information from one computer to another.**
  5. 5. **Computer input devices include keyboards, mice, joysticks, scanners, and so on.**
  6. 6. **Sometimes described as the brain of computers, the CPU is a microprocessor chip—-a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny electrical components. UNIT 2(A)**

  7. 1. **As used in the text, e-mail (short for “electronic mail”) can refer to a single electronic message or to the entire electronic system for sending and receiving messages and files over a computer network.**

  8. 2. **E-mail is protected by copyright law. If you receive an e-mail from a client, you cannot immediately post it to your company’s website without his or her permission.**
  9. 3. **Legally, e-mail messages sent by employees via the employer’s computer network belong to the employer, so the employer is within his or her rights to read them without the employees’ knowledge or permission.**
  10. 4. **When you are using e-mail, you should remember that deleted e-mail messages can be retrieved from your company’s servers and used in a legal case.**
  11. 5. **An attached document retains its original format/formatting when it is received by the reader and can be downloaded right to his or her computer.**
  12. 6. **A (n) signature file created with e-mail programs can automatically put a signature at the end of each e-mail message.**
  13. 7. **E-mail messages should be concise. Usually, their length should be kept under one and a half screens.**
  14. 8. **E-mail is essentially a form of public communication. If a message is confidential or proprietary, it is not appropriate to send it by e-mail. UNIT 2(B)**

  15. 1. **In order to prevent your new PC from virus infections, you should adopt necessary security measures before connecting it to the Internet.**

  16. 2. **For a Windows PC, activating the ClearType effect can smooth font edges, making the fonts displayed much more crisply on the screen.**
  17. 3. **The default background color for text areas in Windows is white.**
  18. 4. **System files and file extensions are hidden and big icons are displayed instead of a detailed list. That is the default manner in which the file system is displayed in Windows Explorer.**
  19. 5. **The screen refresh rate of LCDs is usually limited to 60 Hz.**
  20. 6. **Installing the Microsoft Windows XP PowerToys in your Windows PC makes it easier to change default configurations, synchronize across computers, and manipulate files and photographs. UNIT 3(A)**

  21. 1. **An operating system has three major functions: coordinating and manipulating computer hardware, organizing files on a variety of storage media, and managing hardware errors and the loss of data.**

  22. 2. **ROM contains a (n) bootstrap program that supplies instructions for loading key parts of the operating system when the computer starts.**
  23. 3. **Text-oriented** command interpreters require commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard.
  24. 4. **If you want to run more than one process at a time, you must use an operating system with multitasking capability.**
  25. 5. **Operating systems can use virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available.**
  26. 6. **A desktop operating system, such as Windows, is designed for a personal computer.**
  27. 7. **For a multiuser operating system the processing takes place on a centralized computer, whereas for a network operating system processing takes place on users’ local computers.**
  28. 8. **Handheld computers typically feature single-user operating systems. UNIT 4(A)**

  29. 1. **A programming language is any artificial(人工)** language that can be used to write a sequence of instructions that can ultimately be processed and executer by a computer.

  30. 2. **The reason that naturl/human languages are not suited for programming computers is that they are ambiguous.**
  31. 3. **A machine language is a low-level language in binary code that a computer can understand and execute directly.**
  32. 4. **Most programmers today prefer to use high-level languages because they have some similarities to human languages and are therefore fairly easy to use for writing complicated programs.**
  33. 5. **In an assembly language, each statement(声明) corresponds roughly to one machine language instruction.**
  34. 6. **Although assembly languages are very close to machine languages, they must still be translated into the latter before a computer can use them.**
  35. 7. **Data declarations are statements which give names and properties to variables(变量).**
  36. 8. **The history of programming languages can be traced back almost to the invention of the digital computer in the 1940s. UNIT 4(B)**

  37. 1. **Java is partially modeled on C++, the dominant software development language before Java.**

  38. 2. ** Java is a (n) object-oriented programming language; programming in Java is centered on creating objects, manipulating objects, and making objects work together.**
  39. 3. **The bytecode generated by a Java compiler is machine independent and can run on any platform with a Java interpreter.**
  40. 4. **With Java, there are several security mechanisms to protect your computer system against harm caused by stray programs.**
  41. 5. **The new Java Virtual Machine uses a technology known an just-in-time compilation.**
  42. 6. **Java provides built-in language support for multithreading, which allows a program to perform several tasks simultaneously. UNIT 5(A)**

  43. 1. **The development process in the software life cycle involves four phases: analysis, design, implementation, and testing.**

  44. 2. **In the system development process, the systems analyst defines the user, needs, requirements and methods in the analysis phase.**
  45. 3. **In the system development process, the code is written in the implementation(实施) phase.**
  46. 4. **In the system development process, modularity is a very well-established principle used in the design phase.**
  47. 5. **The most commonly used tool in the design phase is the structure chart.**
  48. 6. **In the system development process, flow_charts_ and pseudocode are tools used by programmers in the implementation phase.**
  49. 7. **Pseudocode is part English and part program logic.**
  50. 8. **While black box testing is done by the system test engineer and the user, white box testing is done by the programmer. UNIT 5(B)**

  51. 1. **In relational data modeling, the fist step is to identify all the entities(实体) and their relationships.**

  52. 2. **The rawest form of data storage is a (n) file where data is stored without any attributes, characteristics, or links.**
  53. 3. **SQL, developed by IBM, is the most common query language.**
  54. 4. **The main components of a DBMS are the storage engine, the database manager, the query processor, and the language precompiler.**
  55. 5. **The language precompiler serves to convert the DML statements embedded in the application program into normal procedure calls.**
  56. 6. **The complete database application can be divided into three major categories: data presentation(介绍), business logic, and data storage. UNIT 6(A)**

  57. 1. **The most widely used LAN system is Ethernet, which adopts a form of access known as CSMA-CD.**

  58. 2. **A feature common to all LANs is that they are limited in range: typically they cover a building or campus.**
  59. 3. **Bridges** can only connect LANs of the same type.
  60. 4. **Routers** can interconnect many different types of computer network.
  61. 5. **The public telephone and data networks are the two major components in most real computer networks that provide long-distance links that extend a LAN into a (n) wide area network.**
  62. 6. **The high-speed data services for the interconnection of computer networks are usually referred to as broadband connections.**
  63. 7. **It is now generally agreed that computer systems should be constructed as client/server systems rather than as monolithic systems.**
  64. 8. **In the protection of computer data, public key systems allow users to scramble and unscramble their messages easily without a third party intruding. UNIT 6(B)**

  65. 1. **The Internet evolved from ARPANET, a large wide area network created in the 1960s by the United States military.**

  66. 2. **A Web site is made up of documents called Web pages, which share a common domain name, contain text, pictures, sounds, and videos, and often contain links to other Web pages.**
  67. 3. **A user typically connects to the Internet in one of two ways: dedicated(专用) access and dial-up access.**
  68. 4. **With dial-up access, a modem is needed to convert signals from digital to analog and from analog to digital.**
  69. 5. **Uniform Resource Locators are Internet addresses used by Web browsers to locate Internet resources.**
  70. 6. **The bandwidth of a computer network is the amount of data it can transmit. 词汇表**

access **存取,访问**

activate **激活,启动**

agnostic** 不可知论() **

anomaly **异常,异态**

concurrent access anomaly** 并发访问异常 **

applet **(应用)程序**

array **数组,阵列**

artificial intelligence **人工智能**

assembly language **汇编语言**

backup **备份的,后备的**

bandwidth **带宽**

binary **二进制的**

bit **位,比特**

bottleneck** **瓶颈,障碍

broadband **宽带的**

broadband connection **宽带连接**

bytecode **字节()码**

bcc line **密送行**

chip **芯片**

compiler **编译程序,编译器**

concurrent** **同时发生的,并发的,并行的

confidential** **秘密的,机密的

configuration **配置**

constraint** **约束,限制

context switching **上下文切换**

corrupt **毁坏,损坏,破坏**

data corruption **数据损坏**

customization **定制,用户化**

data model **数据模型**

data presentation **数据显示**

database manager **数据库管理器;数据库管理员**

deployment **部署,展开**

device driver **设备驱动程序**

distributed **分布式的**

embed **嵌入**

embedded **嵌入()的,内嵌的**

encapsulation** **封装,密封,压缩

encryption **加密**

enhancement **增强,提高**

entity **实体**

Ethernet **以太网(标准**)

facilitate **使变得()容易;促进**

feature **为特色;给以显著地位**

flaming **争论(特指在邮件讨论组或网络论坛中争论**)

flowchart **流程图,框图**

garbage collection **垃圾收集,无用(存储)单元收集**

gigabyte **吉字节,千兆字节**

inconsistency **不一致**

data inconsistency **数据不一致**

infrastructure **基础结构,基础设施**

inherent **内在的;固有的**

integrated circuit** **集成电路

integrated **完整 (**)

interactive **交互()的**

interactive application **交互式应用程序**

interpreter **解释程序,解释器**

kernel **核心(程序),内核(程序**)

kilobyte **千字节**

life cycle **生命周期,生存周期,寿命周期**

mainframe **(计算)机,大型机**

manipulate **(熟练地)**操作,使用,操纵

megabyte **兆字节**

memory allocation **存储器分配**

memory location **存储单元**

metadata **元数据**

microprocessor **微处理器**

modeling **建模,模型化**

relational data modeling **关系型数据建模**

modularity **模块性,模块化**

multitasking **多任务(技术或方法**)

multithread **多线程,多流**

multithreaded **多线程的**

multithreading **多线程操作**

netiquette **网络礼节,网规**

networking **联网,建网**

operating system **操作系统**

optimization **优化,使最佳化**

package **程序(或软件)包**

parameter **参数,参量**

peer-to-peer **对等的**

polymorphism** **多态性,多形性

portable **可移植的,便携的**

procedural language **过程语言**

procedure call **过程调用**

protocol **协议**

pseudocode **()码**

public key **公用密钥,公钥**

query optimization **查询优化**

redundancy **冗余**

data redundancy **数据冗余**

refresh rate **刷新率**

relational database**关系数据库**

runtime **运行时刻,运行()期**

scenario **方案,情况,脚本**

scheduler **调试程序,调度器**

source code **()码**

spam **垃圾邮件**

-specific** **表示“限定的”,“特有的”

machine-specific **机器无关性**

platform-specific **平台无关性**

storage engine **存储引擎**

storage medium **存储介质**

software engineering **软件工程**

structure chart **结构图**

test case **测试用例**

Trojan (horse) **特洛伊木马程序(或病毒**)

topology **拓扑结构**

utility** **实用程序

system utility **系统实用程序**

user working environment **用户工作环境**

validity** check 有效性校验(或检查)**

virus **病毒**


ANSI **美国国家标准协会**

ASCII **美国信息交换()标准()码**

bcc **密送**

BIOS **基本输入/输出系统**

cc **抄送**

CPU **中央处理器**

CRT **阴极射线管**

DBMS **数据库管理系统**

DES **数据库加密系统**

DML** **数据修改语言

DPI **每英寸点数**

DVD **数字(激光)视盘**

ERD** 实体关系(或联系)**图

FAQ **常问的问题,经常提出的问题**

FAT** **文件分配表

FTP **文件传输协议**

GUI **图形用户界面**

HTML **()文本标记语言**

HTTP **()文本传输协议**

I/O **输入/输出**

IBM (**美国)国际商用机器公司**

IDE **集成开发环境**

ISP **因特网服务提供商**

JVM Java**虚拟机**

Kbps **千位/秒**

LAN **局域网**

LCD **液晶显示(器**

Mbps **兆位/秒**

mph** 每小时英里数,英里/**小时

NTFS** **新技术文件系统

OOP **面向对象程序设计,面向对象编程**

PDA** **个人数字助理

P&D **研究与发展**

RAM **随机(存取)存储器**

ROM **只读存储器**

SQL **结构化查询语言**

TCP/IP TCP/IP**协议,传输控制协议/网际协议**

URL **统一资源定位符,统一联网地址**

WAN **广域网**

OSI **开放系统互联**

TLD** **顶级域名


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