一、 **单词**30

二、 **填空**20

三、 **缩略词**13

四、 **翻译37 P72P46**


  1. 1. **A (n)byteis made up of eightbits, which are the smallest units of information handled by a computer.**
  2. 2. **According to the text,ENIACwas the first digital computer ever built in history.
  3. 3. **It is believed thatGrace Murray Hopperwrote the first program that turned English computer instructions into the strings of 1s and 0s that make computers work.**
  4. 4. **British mathematicians Charles Babbage and Augusta Ada Byron once worked on plans for machines that could store information onpunchedcards, which hadholesin them.**
  5. 5. **With the rapid development of computer technology, thedesktopor laptop computers we use today are much more powerful than themainframesbuilt decades ago, such as ENIAC and UNIVAC.**
  6. 6. **The invention ofintegratedcircuits or computerchipsin the 1960s made it possible for computers to become smaller.**
  7. 7. **A computer program is a detailed set ofinstructionsused to tell a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task.**
  8. 8. **Invented in the 1970s,personalcomputers are designed to meet the computing needs of an individual.**


  1. 1. **Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allow users to point and click on small on-screen pictures, calledicons, to issue commands.**
  2. 2. **A bit, short forbinarydigit, has two possible representations (0 or 1), and a byte has256possible combinations of 0s and 1s.**
  3. 3. **The physical memory of a computer is eitherrandom-accessmemory (RAM) orread-onlymemory (ROM).**
  4. 4. **A bus is usually a flatcablewith numerous parallel wires. A16-bitbus has 16 parallel wires and allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits of information from one computer to another.**
  5. 5. **Computerinputdevices include keyboards, mice, joysticks, scanners, and so on.**
  6. 6. **Sometimes described as the brain of computers, theCPUis a microprocessor chip—-a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny electrical components.UNIT 2(A)**

  7. 1. **As used in the text, e-mail (short for “electronic mail”) can refer to a single electronic message or to the entire electronicsystemfor sending and receiving messages and files over a computer network.**

  8. 2. **E-mail is protected bycopyrightlaw. If you receive an e-mail from a client, you cannot immediately post it to your company’s website without his or her permission.**
  9. 3. **Legally, e-mail messages sent by employees via the employer’s computer network belong to the employer, so the employer is within his or herrightsto read them without the employees’ knowledge or permission.**
  10. 4. **When you are using e-mail, you should remember thatdeletede-mail messages can be retrieved from your company’s servers and used in a legal case.**
  11. 5. **An attached document retains its originalformat/formattingwhen it is received by the reader and can be downloaded right to his or her computer.**
  12. 6. **A (n)signaturefile created with e-mail programs can automatically put a signature at the end of each e-mail message.**
  13. 7. **E-mail messages should be concise. Usually, their length should be kept under one and a halfscreens.**
  14. 8. **E-mail is essentially a form of public communication. If a message is confidential orproprietary, it is not appropriate to send it by e-mail.UNIT 2(B)**

  15. 1. **In order to prevent your new PC from virus infections, you should adopt necessarysecuritymeasures before connecting it to the Internet.**

  16. 2. **For a Windows PC, activating theClearTypeeffect can smooth font edges, making the fonts displayed much more crisply on the screen.**
  17. 3. **The default background color for text areas in Windows iswhite.**
  18. 4. **System files and fileextensionsare hidden and bigiconsare displayed instead of a detailed list. That is the default manner in which the file system is displayed in Windows Explorer.**
  19. 5. **The screen refresh rate of LCDs is usually limited to60Hz.**
  20. 6. **Installing the Microsoft Windows XPPowerToysin your Windows PC makes it easier to change default configurations, synchronize across computers, and manipulate files and photographs.UNIT 3(A)**

  21. 1. **An operating system has three major functions: coordinating and manipulating computerhardware, organizing files on a variety ofstoragemedia, and managing hardware errors and the loss ofdata.**

  22. 2. **ROM contains a (n)bootstrapprogram that supplies instructions for loading key parts of the operating system when the computer starts.**
  23. 3. **Text-oriented** command interpreters require commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard.
  24. 4. **If you want to run more than one process at a time, you must use an operating system withmultitaskingcapability.**
  25. 5. **Operating systems can usevirtualmemory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available.**
  26. 6. **A desktop operating system, such as Windows, is designed for apersonalcomputer.**
  27. 7. **For a multiuser operating system the processing takes place on acentralizedcomputer, whereas for a network operating system processing takes place on users’localcomputers.**
  28. 8. **Handheld computers typically featuresingle-useroperating systems.UNIT 4(A)**

  29. 1. **A programming language is anyartificial(人工)** language that can be used to write a sequence ofinstructionsthat can ultimately be processed and executer by a computer.

  30. 2. **The reason thatnaturl/humanlanguages are not suited for programming computers is that they are ambiguous.**
  31. 3. **Amachinelanguage is a low-level language in binary code that a computer can understand and execute directly.**
  32. 4. **Most programmers today prefer to usehigh-levellanguages because they have some similarities to human languages and are therefore fairly easy to use for writing complicated programs.**
  33. 5. **In an assembly language, eachstatement(声明)corresponds roughly to one machine language instruction.**
  34. 6. **Although assembly languages are very close to machine languages, they must still betranslatedinto the latter before a computer can use them.**
  35. 7. **Data declarations are statements which give names and properties tovariables(变量).**
  36. 8. **The history of programming languages can be traced back almost to the invention of thedigitalcomputer in the 1940s.UNIT 4(B)**

  37. 1. **Java is partially modeled onC++, the dominant software development language before Java.**

  38. 2. **Java is a (n)object-orientedprogramming language; programming in Java is centered on creating objects, manipulating objects, and making objects work together.**
  39. 3. **Thebytecodegenerated by a Java compiler is machine independent and can run on any platform with a Java interpreter.**
  40. 4. **With Java, there are severalsecuritymechanisms to protect your computer system against harm caused by stray programs.**
  41. 5. **The new Java Virtual Machine uses a technology known anjust-in-timecompilation.**
  42. 6. **Java provides built-in language support formultithreading, which allows a program to perform several tasks simultaneously.UNIT 5(A)**

  43. 1. **The development process in the software life cycle involves four phases: analysis, design, implementation, andtesting.**

  44. 2. **In the system development process, the systems analyst defines the user, needs, requirements and methods in theanalysisphase.**
  45. 3. **In the system development process, the code is written in theimplementation(实施)phase.**
  46. 4. **In the system development process, modularity is a very well-established principle used in thedesignphase.**
  47. 5. **The most commonly used tool in the design phase is thestructurechart.**
  48. 6. **In the system development process,flow_charts_and pseudocode are tools used by programmers in the implementation phase.**
  49. 7. **Pseudocode is part English and part programlogic.**
  50. 8. **While black box testing is done by the system test engineer and the user, white box testing is done by theprogrammer.UNIT 5(B)**

  51. 1. **In relational data modeling, the fist step is to identify all theentities(实体)and their relationships.**

  52. 2. **The rawest form of data storage is a (n)filewhere data is stored without any attributes, characteristics, or links.**
  53. 3. **SQL, developed by IBM, is the most commonquerylanguage.**
  54. 4. **The main components of a DBMS are the storageengine, the database manager, the queryprocessor, and the language precompiler.**
  55. 5. **The language precompiler serves to convert the DML statements embedded in the application program into normalprocedurecalls.**
  56. 6. **The complete database application can be divided into three major categories: datapresentation(介绍), business logic, and datastorage.UNIT 6(A)**

  57. 1. **The most widely used LAN system isEthernet, which adopts a form of access known as CSMA-CD.**

  58. 2. **A feature common to all LANs is that they are limited inrange: typically they cover a building or campus.**
  59. 3. **Bridges** can only connect LANs of the same type.
  60. 4. **Routers** can interconnect many different types of computer network.
  61. 5. **The publictelephoneand data networks are the two major components in most real computer networks that provide long-distance links that extend a LAN into a (n)widearea network.**
  62. 6. **The high-speed data services for the interconnection of computer networks are usually referred to asbroadbandconnections.**
  63. 7. **It is now generally agreed that computer systems should be constructed asclient/serversystems rather than as monolithic systems.**
  64. 8. **In the protection of computer data,publickey systems allow users to scramble and unscramble their messages easily without a third party intruding.UNIT 6(B)**

  65. 1. **The Internet evolved fromARPANET, a large wide area network created in the 1960s by the United States military.**

  66. 2. **A Websiteis made up of documents called Webpages, which share a common domain name, contain text, pictures, sounds, and videos, and often contain links to other Web pages.**
  67. 3. **A user typically connects to the Internet in one of two ways:dedicated(专用)access and dial-up access.**
  68. 4. **With dial-up access, amodemis needed to convert signals from digital to analog and from analog to digital.**
  69. 5. **Uniform ResourceLocatorsare Internet addresses used by Web browsers to locate Internet resources.**
  70. 6. **Thebandwidthof a computer network is the amount of data it can transmit.词汇表**

access **存取,访问**

activate **激活,启动**


anomaly **异常,异态**

concurrent access anomaly**并发访问异常**

applet **(应用)程序**

array **数组,阵列**

artificial intelligence **人工智能**

assembly language **汇编语言**

backup **备份的,后备的**

bandwidth **带宽**

binary **二进制的**

bit **位,比特**


broadband **宽带的**

broadband connection **宽带连接**

bytecode **字节()码**

bcc line **密送行**

chip **芯片**

compiler **编译程序,编译器**



configuration **配置**


context switching **上下文切换**

corrupt **毁坏,损坏,破坏**

data corruption **数据损坏**

customization **定制,用户化**

data model **数据模型**

data presentation **数据显示**

database manager **数据库管理器;数据库管理员**

deployment **部署,展开**

device driver **设备驱动程序**

distributed **分布式的**

embed **嵌入**

embedded **嵌入()的,内嵌的**


encryption **加密**

enhancement **增强,提高**

entity **实体**

Ethernet **以太网(标准**)

facilitate **使变得()容易;促进**

feature **为特色;给以显著地位**

flaming **争论(特指在邮件讨论组或网络论坛中争论**)

flowchart **流程图,框图**

garbage collection **垃圾收集,无用(存储)单元收集**

gigabyte **吉字节,千兆字节**

inconsistency **不一致**

data inconsistency **数据不一致**

infrastructure **基础结构,基础设施**

inherent **内在的;固有的**

integrated circuit****集成电路

integrated **完整(**)

interactive **交互()的**

interactive application **交互式应用程序**

interpreter **解释程序,解释器**

kernel **核心(程序),内核(程序**)

kilobyte **千字节**

life cycle **生命周期,生存周期,寿命周期**

mainframe **(计算)机,大型机**

manipulate **(熟练地)**操作,使用,操纵

megabyte **兆字节**

memory allocation **存储器分配**

memory location **存储单元**

metadata **元数据**

microprocessor **微处理器**

modeling **建模,模型化**

relational data modeling **关系型数据建模**

modularity **模块性,模块化**

multitasking **多任务(技术或方法**)

multithread **多线程,多流**

multithreaded **多线程的**

multithreading **多线程操作**

netiquette **网络礼节,网规**

networking **联网,建网**

operating system **操作系统**

optimization **优化,使最佳化**

package **程序(或软件)包**

parameter **参数,参量**

peer-to-peer **对等的**


portable **可移植的,便携的**

procedural language **过程语言**

procedure call **过程调用**

protocol **协议**

pseudocode **()码**

public key **公用密钥,公钥**

query optimization **查询优化**

redundancy **冗余**

data redundancy **数据冗余**

refresh rate **刷新率**

relational database**关系数据库**

runtime **运行时刻,运行()期**

scenario **方案,情况,脚本**

scheduler **调试程序,调度器**

source code **()码**

spam **垃圾邮件**


machine-specific **机器无关性**

platform-specific **平台无关性**

storage engine **存储引擎**

storage medium **存储介质**

software engineering **软件工程**

structure chart **结构图**

test case **测试用例**

Trojan (horse) **特洛伊木马程序(或病毒**)

topology **拓扑结构**


system utility **系统实用程序**

user working environment **用户工作环境**


virus **病毒**


ANSI **美国国家标准协会**

ASCII **美国信息交换()标准()码**

bcc **密送**

BIOS **基本输入/输出系统**

cc **抄送**

CPU **中央处理器**

CRT **阴极射线管**

DBMS **数据库管理系统**

DES **数据库加密系统**


DPI **每英寸点数**

DVD **数字(激光)视盘**


FAQ **常问的问题,经常提出的问题**


FTP **文件传输协议**

GUI **图形用户界面**

HTML **()文本标记语言**

HTTP **()文本传输协议**

I/O **输入/输出**

IBM (**美国)国际商用机器公司**

IDE **集成开发环境**

ISP **因特网服务提供商**

JVM Java**虚拟机**

Kbps **千位/秒**

LAN **局域网**

LCD **液晶显示(器**

Mbps **兆位/秒**



OOP **面向对象程序设计,面向对象编程**


P&D **研究与发展**

RAM **随机(存取)存储器**

ROM **只读存储器**

SQL **结构化查询语言**

TCP/IP TCP/IP**协议,传输控制协议/网际协议**

URL **统一资源定位符,统一联网地址**

WAN **广域网**

OSI **开放系统互联**



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